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“公摊面积”要取消了?这只是错误理解

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 河北发放首批港澳台居民居住证 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

智能化数控设备集体“亮相”成都国际家居展

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

However, you know when your cycles are over when the washer and dryer stop making noise. And you know when the weather is ugly by simply looking outside, or checking your weather app. Therefore, the product is basically just another way hackers can get into your home.
China's box office sales hit a record high in 2015, by pulling in 44 billion yuan, or some 6.8 billion US dollars, with domestic films accounting for a large chunk of that growth.
豆瓣网友“Weishenmeyaoxuefa”称:“这部剧中的武术场景很抢眼,演员们表演的是真功夫。”
在过去三年里,夏威夷航空公司的航班延误率只有6.92%,几乎是排名第二的阿拉斯加航空公司的一半——这家公司的航班延误率达到11.27%。
这个触动人心的成长故事完美捕捉了一个人从青少年初长为成年人的甜蜜又苦涩的阶段。
ScreamRide
The estimates include earnings from movies, TV and endorsements from cosmetic and other companies. Bollywood star Deepika Padukone is the only newcomer on the list.

我经常生气
据市场研究公司IDC数据显示,个人电脑(PC)的需求正在下降,在2015年第四季度,全球PC出货量下跌了10.6%。
这个排行榜是不断变化的全球商业环境的年度快照。美国仍然是拥有最多数量的全球2000强公司的国家:总共564家。尽管今年日本失去的成员最多(26家),仍然尾随美国,总计拥有225家公司。
但是即使在一些糟糕的经济环境下,一些岗位并不是值得一做的。当你在决定是否要放弃的时候,你是不是应该寻找一些迹象呢?这里有10种信号告诉你是否该找一份新的工作呢:
1. Jennifer Lawrence

Footnotes

  • 新零售体验:门窗行业线上线下融合模式是趋势
  • 根据周一发布的年度调查报告,如今实现澳大利亚梦的成本急剧上升,悉尼和墨尔本超过大多数欧美城市,跻身世界最贵城市前五名。

I'm only a child yet I know if all the money spent on war was spent on ending poverty and finding environmental answers, what a wonderful place this earth would be! 我只是一个小孩,然而我知道,要是把花在战争上的钱,用在找寻环境问题答案上来,或用在结束贫穷并找到解决的方案上来,这个星球将是个多么美好的地方啊!
ballroom
照片左起分别是苹果董事长史蒂夫乔布斯,总裁兼CEO约翰斯卡利,创始人之一的斯蒂夫沃兹尼亚克,他们正在推出新款苹果II c型机,1984年4月24日,旧金山
He then proceeded to ram the violin through the canvas.
英国演员丹尼尔卡卢亚扮演的克里斯华盛顿卷入到一个美国小镇的邪恶阴谋中。
库迪斯认为,这一点在预防21世纪的泡沫和破灭方面具有重要的监管意义。

卫浴陶瓷行业发展主要存在这几大问题?

References

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