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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

Carmelo

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n. 存货,储备; 树干; 血统; 股份; 家畜
8.软件工程师
在这个越来越为人类所主宰的星球上,我们仍然可以从其他物种身上学习到很多东西。格陵兰鲨鱼可存活400年,是世界上最长寿的脊椎动物,这一发现让人类重新审视自己忙碌的人生。

伦敦商学院在所有这5项排名上表现强劲。其所有课程都跻身欧洲前十,包括全日制MBA课程排名第二,合办EMBA(与美国哥伦比亚商学院(Columbia Business School)合办)和定制高管教育课程均排名第四。
这是光明的季节,也是黑暗的季节……
Both the film and the television series are adapted from the Taiwan action role-playing game of the same name which was developed by Softstar Entertainment. The game is considered by many as simply one of the best Chinese RPG's ever created.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

何止生活成本高 这9大城市还该降房价

促进消费稳定增长。
I formerly had an Android device (even though I have had a MacBook since 2009 – weird, I know). After switching this summer, I quickly realized the power of iPhone “Reminders.” Each time a reminder is due, your iPhone buzzes and displays a pop-up. You can snooze it or mark as completed. In addition, you can set up recurring reminders, which are perfect for remembering to mail estimated quarterly tax payments, renewing subscriptions, running payroll and other things you tend to forget.
Microsoft Corp., Toyota Motor Corp., IBM Corp., Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Amazon.com Inc., Mercedes-Benz and General Electric Co. were also on the Top 10 list, according to Interbrand's 2016 Best Global Brands report.

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

凭借这场胜利,金州勇士队追平了由1957-1958赛季的波士顿凯尔特人队创造的卫冕冠军赛季开局14连胜纪录。而勇士队也是成为在NBA历史上,仅有的五只以14胜0负开局的球队。接下来,他们将会作客丹佛,力争在周日将纪录继续保持下去。
荷兰合作银行是面向全球农户和农业企业的领先融资机构。
但经济学家总体上预计,一旦飓风造成的失真消失,前段时间的趋势就有望恢复并延续。接受《华尔街日报》最新月度调查的45位经济学家预计,到明年6月,失业率将降至7.8%,2013年年底将降至7.5%。部分经济学家说,就业增长可能会摆脱现在的缓慢速度而加快。信安环球投资有限公司(Principal Global Investors)经济学家鲍尔(Bob Baur)说,我觉得到时候企业将必须招人。[qh]

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • Google has brought out the list of the most searched topics in its search engine this year.
  • 2015年全球涂料销量达3727万吨 亚太地区以49%领先
  • Quanta Computer, ” in October. Samsung is also reported to be working on a 12 to 13-inch tablet, and it seems evident that “these large-size tablets will greatly impact ultrabook demand.” This “iPad Max” will be a defacto laptop with the addition of new cases with integrated keyboards and batteries and could well become a mainstay for high schools and college students who need better content creation tools than thos offers on existing iPads and iPad Minis.
  • 房价或将阶段性见顶 经济稳中向好可期
  • 深圳打造更具全球竞争力的人才制度体系
  • Between 1991 and 2010, the cancer mortality rate fell by a whopping 20%, which is more than 10% a decade. One day we will say goodbye to cancer for good.
    库尼斯在去年的榜单上排名第九。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 永艺家具IPO之路波澜起伏 引外界质疑, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

北京租房新政倾斜租户 租房时代来了吗?

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

资本助力家居市场 企业上市利弊如何?

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 立场:和员工分享300万美元奖金
    韩孟杰强调,由于处于性活跃期,容易受到外界的影响,发生不安全的性行为,所以大学生感染的风险还是存在的。
  • 他的投篮许多次都是只打中篮筐的前沿儿。而一些三分投篮甚至投出了三不沾。许多本应是扣篮的球最终他只选择了上篮,当然了,这是相比在若干年前没有任何伤病的他而言的。而最残酷的是,其中一次投篮,科比甚至把球嵌在了篮筐与篮板之间。最终还是对方的球员把球拿了下来。
    The fastest growing start-ups tend to be global in their outlook. The immigration restrictions already imposed by President Trump in the US and those under consideration as part of the UK’s separation from the EU are likely to be a hindrance in the coming year for hiring.
    Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, 72, became Africa's first democratically elected female president in 2005. The Nobel Committee praised the Liberian leader for her efforts to secure peace, promote economic and social development and strengthen the position of women.
    这项预计于2016年1月1日生效的修正案,包含一个子条款:为生二孩的夫妻延长生育假和其它福利。这些政策有望提高一些夫妻生二孩的意愿。然而,由于抚养两个孩子的成本会更高,并且女性生二胎还要担心公司老板会有看法,所以许多夫妇都表示不愿意再生。
    We learned about the lingering toll of this frightening epidemic.

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 句容部署水泥制造和石材加工企业粉尘危害专项治理工作
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 京津冀严查“大棚房”,为何仍有人顶风销售?

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

Although it looked like the mobile patent wars might cool off after several settlements late in 2014, this year kicked off with a skirmish between Apple and Ericsson over patent royalties related to wireless communications. BlackBerry used to be pretty litigious: It even took on celebrity Ryan Seacrest over its keyboard! But these days it is more focused on trying to convince smartphone buyers that its technology is cool again. Or at least relevant.
Few years in recent decades dawned with as much of a sense of pessimism as 2014. One consistent theme in the predictions for the year was that 2014 looked eerily similar to 1914. Most pundits predicted doom and gloom, especially in east Asia. Yet, while there were many horrific events — from thedowning of flight MH17 over Ukraine, to the abduction of hundreds of schoolgirls in Nigeria and the rise of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant — we have avoided outright world war. Now that the year is closed, with no repetition of 1914, it may be wise to investigate why the pundits were wrong, particularly on their ideas around the potential for conflict in Asia.
v. 投,掷,抛,铸造,丢弃,指定演员,加起来,投射(目
时间:2009-10-22 编辑:vicki
金维刚补充说道:“去年前三季度职工平均工资增长幅度大致在6.3%,而我国2016年GDP增速则为6.7%。这两项都要比之前一年有所下降。”
Despite an abortive attempt in August to devalue the renminbi — a move that rocked global markets and was quickly abandoned by Beijing — China’s trade-weighted exchange rate was 8.5 per cent stronger in September than a year earlier, making Chinese exports less competitive.
Plastic surgery has long been big business in the US, but now the trend is sweeping across Asia.

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • check原是检查的意思,后来有这么一帮人喜欢突然阻止你,检查你的暂住证,所以就有了突然阻止的意思。
  • 2月首周京政策房成交占比超六成 东坝自住房密集
  • 1.It wasn’t me! – Because some things just aren’t worth taking credit for。
    1997:H5N1传染人类1997: H5N1 Infects Humans
  • 软体家具新国标年内出台
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 201011/117323.shtmlThe French actress will star alongside Ryan Gosling, Michael Fassbender and Natalie Portman.
    The relocation is also part of the integration plan for the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei cluster, which aims to ease congestion in the capital and achieve more balanced development in the region.
  • [str?uk]
    近日,英国《金融时报》披露了中国北方很多地区例行公布的关于国内生产总值(GDP)的虚假数据。在那些地区,可靠的替代证据表明,地方政府“抹平”了经济增长数字。他们人为地推高了2012年至2016年期间的增长数字,掩盖了真实的低迷期,去年又掩盖了真正的复苏。
  • 除了作品被展示在谷歌主页,张天羽还获得了3万美元的大学奖学金。她所在的学校也将获得5万美元的谷歌教育科技拨款。谷歌还以她的名义向慈善机构捐赠了2万美元,用于给孟加拉的学校提供净水。
    [breis]
  • I am calling this the Wan Long prize, after the Chinese meat magnate who once uttered the clearest sentence ever spoken by a CEO: “What I do is kill pigs and sell meat.” Mr Wan will surely approve of my winner, a BNSF railway executive who told a conference: “We move stuff from one place to another.”
    Finding Dory releases on June 17, 2016.
    1.中国经济。中国是世界上第二大石油消费国,并且已经在2013年底超过美国,成为全球最大液体燃料进口国。对于油价来说,更重要的一点取决于中国石油消费量在今后几年的增长态势。美国能源情报署预计,2020年中国的日均原油消费量将比2012年高出300万桶,约占这段时间内全球新增需求的四分之一。尽管还存在很多不确定因素,但中国经济刚刚送走了令人失望的第四季度。最终,中国2014年全年经济增长率跌至逾25年来的最低点。中国经济能否停止减速,这一点我们难以得知,但它的走势将对2015年的油价产生巨大影响。
  • 上榜理由:2014年世界杯庆典活动
    这位工作人员表示:“我们的数据显示该用户的年龄是28岁,并非媒体上报道的13岁。”
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 核心城市房地产触底回暖 非核心城市泡沫回调 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

坚持“房住不炒” 实现安居宜居梦想

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

中科院:今年一线城市房价均涨6.5%全国涨1.2%

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

住建部专家:一二线楼市库存一两年内将明显下降

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

多地楼市成交回升 一二三线典型城市库存全线下调

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • She is now so successful that her mother has hired a security team who monitor the star 24/7.
  • 补救办法:虽然自己当老板的想法很诱人,但并不是每个人都适合创业。创造属于自己的事业,让家人过上幸福生活,改善顾客的生活,这些听起来肯定很浪漫,但漫长的工作时间、没有闲暇时间、承担资金风险,身兼老板、职员、营销人员、会计和门卫等多个职位于一身,这些你能承受吗?如果你喜欢稳定的工作和专注于某项具体任务而不是身兼多职,又或者你不喜欢冒险,你就无法想象整天为工作忙碌的生活。如果你属于以上情况,那么创业并不适合你。
  • 工信部:水泥玻璃等五行业不再增产能

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 这位官员表示,相比其他职位来说,那些对教育背景或工作经历没有特殊要求的职位更受欢迎,近些年报名人数达到数千人的基本上都是这种职位。
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 总排名76位的新加坡管理大学(Singapore Management University)李光前商学院(Lee Kong Chian School of Business)是首家进入这一排行榜的新加坡商学院。今年共7家亚洲商学院上榜。李光前商学院校友在亚洲商学院中最具国际流动性。他们在流动性指标方面排名第25,比在亚洲商学院中流动性排第二的台湾国立中山大学(National Sun Yat-Sen University)高57位。
    一家非官方机构出具的中国制造业衡量指标在11月下降,表明国有企业的业务增长并未扩展到规模较小和私营的工厂。
    中国的股市能否重回6000点?
  • 莎拉奥康纳(Sarah O'Connor)是就业记者

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 韩美林在他的社交媒体上表示,他只设计了吉祥物的水墨画原始版本,对3D版并不知情。某网友对此回应了这位德高望重的艺术家:“我们当然相信这只丑猴和韩大师无关。”
  • 房产市场地区性冷热不均 一二线城市过热泛泡沫
  • 不过,随着纽约人日益习惯于共享经济,各处楼盘可能最终也不得不接受它。

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 南京:遥控器丢失要赔150元 租客质疑中介乱收费
  • Household substance abuse
  • 建材市场变化莫测 门窗企业紧跟发展风向
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

河北保定打击土地违法行为 通报10起典型案件

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 调控趋紧 楼市“金九银十”行情难现
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 百安居以装修人工费5折促销家居建材
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

She has also performed on Jimmy Kimmel and The Ellen Show - not bad for someone who hasn't even hit adolescence.

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

2013年排名:14
[kɑ:st]
在简历中提到你的孩子和嗜好没有任何好处。永远不要说,“我的孩子上大学了,我就能安心回到工作岗位了。”
安吉利拉瓦尔(Anjli Raval)
[pr?'tekn]
奥巴马的另两条上榜推文是在他卸任时发布的。
上海社会科学院的专家周海旺告诉环球时报:“上海自2014以来就采取了一系列强硬措施,包括改造城中村和规范群租来控制人口增长。”
站在舞台中央,莱昂纳多发言说:“这是无上的荣誉,对我意义重大。两年前当我们置身于荒野当中拍摄电影,我们深深地被大自然的美丽和庞杂所感染。
v. 从事运
The company realised that "it was all a mistake and that he did it without thinking," a Google spokeswoman said last Wednesday.

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

3月商品住宅成交创七年新高 二线城市全线沸腾

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 7. Amy Adams - $13.5 million
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 单词epic 联想记忆:
  • 北京通州城管今年拆违超两千万平方米
  • 该报道表示:“乐天将伤害中国人民,后果可能是严重的。”该报道发表之后,中国政府对乐天在中国的商业集团开展了多起调查。
  • 家居消费频现“私单”骗局
  • 在开放课程排行榜中,基于对参加课程高管的调查,瑞士洛桑国际管理发展学院在最重要的10项指标上得分特别高。该校在3项指标上排第一,在其他7项指标上都排前五。

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 德豪雷士布局智能家居O2O 线上线下齐发力
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 惊慌随之而来,不过这名少年很快镇定下来,他决定把控局面,寻找逃生出路。
  • One of the main strengths of the LBS programmes is the wide range of students from different countries. More than 90 per cent in its 2015 MBA cohort were from overseas, coming from about 60 different countries.

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

新增产能初步遏制 建材工业加速回暖

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