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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

泰勒·斯威夫特(Taylor Swift),《空白空间》(Blank Space), Big Machine

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除了你的华生,他会觉得这样的你性感极了!
This slide in the dollar value of exports has entirely been a price effect, driven by lower commodity prices. In volume terms, emerging market exports have continued to rise since 2014, even if volume growth in year-on-year terms has moderated to around 2 per cent, a fraction of the double-digit rates witnessed either side of the global financial crisis, as the second chart shows.
“有个人给同事发了条短信说自己辞职了,并请她把这条短信转发给高管。”

用这个背带背孩子更加方便舒适。
社交客服将杀死可怕的电话树
While the political system will be fixated on preserving stability as new leaders take the helm, reduced economic flexibility could thwart Beijing's intentions to do so.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

国务院总理李克强代表国务院向十三届全国人大二次会议作政府工作报告

可口可乐表示,中国消费放缓打击了销售额,而较为疲弱的需求正迫使其降低库存。
关于7月9日发生于詹姆斯敦Cres.家中的枪杀案,调查人员已逮捕两名年轻人,其中一名18岁。
怎样拥有平坦小腹

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

5.播音员
Britney, YOU drive me crazy for appearing on Loose Women smacking gum like it's 1998 as the panel interrogate you.
持续推进大众创业、万众创新。

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 15. “The End of the Tour” (James Ponsoldt)
  • 雷士5亿收购耀能控股 家居照明成主争夺焦点
  • New Year should be a time of banked-up fines, the scent of flowers and wine, good talk, good memories and loyalties renewed. But if all else is lacking - love will do.
  • 把控木门市场变化命脉 助力企业产品销量提升
  • 升达林业营收下滑 将转型智能家居
  • 尽管欧洲工商管理学院与清华大学的合办项目重新跌至亚军位置,但欧洲工商管理学院自己的EMBA项目的排名却上升3个位置,排在第四位,该项目上次获得第4名是在2011年。
    10、《星球大战:侠盗一号》

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 8月全国新房成交量加剧下滑 一线城市回落最明显, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

楼市新一轮调控密集来袭!楼市趋稳态势未变

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

沪深两市主力资金净流出额36.90亿元

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 上海金融学院的研究人员郭峰引用了周二华尔街见闻上的信息并表示,这也是自1978年中国改革开放以来,上海第一次见证了常住人口的减少 。
    Obama watched the returns on television at his Chicago home. Senior campaign strategist David Axelrod said via email that he was feeling "great."
  • 区块潜力巨大,以至于目前出现了创建更多“侧链”的倡议,尽管该想法存在争议。Chain是一款使创建比特币应用简便化的应用程序接口,该公司首席执行官亚当o卢德温表示:“我们目前并不想干扰主区块。主区块运作良好,我们不想破坏它。”
    二月的一天,苹果(Apple)的年度股东大会进行了一个多小时,蒂姆?库克(Tim Cook)已经耐心地回答了苹果进军电视市场的计划和他如何看待谷歌眼镜(Google Glass)等各类问题。但当一位参会听众就苹果各环保项目(比如其太阳能数据中心)的盈利能力向这位首席执行官发难的时候,库克发怒了。
    China has become the country with the most film screens in the world.
    宝能的“突袭”遭到了万科创始人王石的强烈抵制,后者寻找“白衣骑士”出手相助,迄今为止成功地保住了对这家由管理层主导的企业的控制权。这场收购大战既推动万科在深圳股市的股价大涨,又大幅推升了姚振华的已知财富。
    2.Show Up, Every Time

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 木材市场涨声一片 却并未推动市场复苏
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • “反炒房”,长沙调控升级!真正利好刚需购房者

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

['gri:nhaus]
While oil prices may rebound in 2015, they almost certainly won't return to $100 a barrel any time soon, barring a geopolitical crisis in a major petroleum-producing region. So the gift will keep giving this year and further feed an accelerating U.S. recovery.
31岁的罗西每天的工作就是计算五角大楼在养老、医疗和教育福利方面未来的成本。但他说,这份工作不仅仅是鼓捣电子表格数据。他还要与其它政府部门进行沟通,并就金融模型与同事举行头脑风暴会议。
tunnel
This means war: Christopher Nolan's second film not set in the present (or future) is an epic tableau about the rescue of hundreds of thousands of troops from the French coast. Tom Hardy, Mark Rylance, Kenneth Branagh, Cillian Murphy and, er, Harry Styles, star. Think Saving Private Ryan, but saltier.
女子200米蝶泳——刘子歌、焦刘洋
But the change in Wall Street’s — and Silicon Valley’s — appreciation of Mr Cook is down to more than just the 70m iPhones Apple is expected to sell this quarter or the $42bn in sales generated in the previous.

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 豆瓣网友“Amy”称:“他们是神仙。除了谈情说爱,就不能干点别的吗?”
  • 万科等房企降价走量 专家:回暖没那么快
  • Hailed as one of the greatest films of all time, Taxi Driver tells the story of a depressed ex-Marine who attempts to assassinate a senator after being rejected by a woman he admires. While the titular taxi driver, Travis Bickle, lives a chaotic life filled with drug dealers and prostitutes, his story was never meant to be an unrealistic fantasy. Rather, it meant to expose the very real warning signs of a would-be gunman.
    The immediacy for a larger-screen iPhone comes partially from the Asian market where Samsung’s phablets have made significant inroads. Assuming that Apple’s agreement with China Mobile includes these upcoming products, the pricing adjustments that normally occur with new iPhones could make the iPhone 5C significantly more affordable and attractive to the Chinese market. This would begin to make sense of the 5C, which so far seems to be a sales disappointment for Apple. Perhaps the important thing about the 5C is that it is not the 5S, so that down the road it can be discounted without putting price pressure on Apple’s flagship.
  • 二线楼市地王频出 股市恶化巨量热钱无地可去
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • Federica Mogherini, the EU’s foreign policy chief, and Johannes Hahn, the bloc’s enlargement commissioner, have also weighed in, criticising Mr Erdogan’s proposed constitutional changes and his recent rhetoric.
    Yet expectations for the summit meeting on Tuesday are low, with no sign of any political breakthrough that would lead to more ambitious efforts. Scientists say emissions must peak within the next few years, and then begin to decline, if the world is to have any hope of keeping global warming to an upper limit that countries agreed on five years ago. So far, no plans are in place that would come close to achieving that.
  • Explaining how he adjusted the novel, he said: 'I think the answer is that in the book I remain true to every one of Bond's things.
    翻译:译言网虽然面临全球经济衰退,但你依然能看到生生不息的Chanel,“我们依然非常赚钱,”Karl Lagerfeld坚定地说,他犀利的目光从墨镜后透射出来,好像这个事实就像埃
  • 肠道细菌正以我们想像不到的方式干扰着我们。新的研究指出,像帕金森综合症等神经退行性疾病实际上可能始于肠道,而不是大脑。越来越多的证据显示,慢性疲劳综合征可能要归咎于人体内的微生物群系。随着肠道细菌显示出控制食欲以及改变大脑结构的迹象,而且有引起大脑损伤而导致中风的表现,我们的这个小过客(肠道细菌)有着不容忽视的力量。
    ?在纽约的交通基础设施遭受巨大的打击。许多城市的地铁隧道被淹没。
  • 《三生三世十里桃花》
    单词commission 联想记忆:
    小女孩名叫Neshama Spielman,来自耶路撒冷。她是4年前在“圣殿山筛选项目”中发现这个护符的。该项目旨在检查从神圣犹太教遗址移来,未经考古检测过的泥土。当年,Spielman只有8岁。
  • 本土冠军
    Libby把这首歌放在了YouTube频道的评论部分,我把它摘过来了。我将大量的可爱的表述和英式的俚语都用不同颜色区分开了。你能猜出其中的意思吗?“OMG”表带什么意思?
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 深圳楼市“21连降”后为何迎来调控加码? shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

赵薇800万代言难救华源轩 最大板式家具企业倒闭

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

乡村民宿:共享经济新体验

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

央视:不生二孩就得变相“罚款”? 一项荒唐的建议

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

北京启动周五“两节”价格检查,哄抬房租也将被查

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • "It sounds like Harvard is intruding too deeply into the private lives of students," said Dershowitz, who has represented a series of high-profile clients, including OJ Simpson.
  • Johan Pettersson被授予搞笑化学奖,以表彰其揭示了瑞典小城Andersl?v居民的头发会变绿的原因,因为这里的水中含铜量太大。
  • 瓷砖“淡季”市场调查:高安产销率达85%以上 夹江市场依旧低迷

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • vt. 避免,逃避
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 虽然考辛斯喜怒无常的性格和高使用率确实是个麻烦,但是仍然有很多理由做出这个交易:
    会计和咨询机构德勤(Deloitte)英国分公司的企业责任主管克莱尔?伯顿(Claire Burton)表示,Teach First出来的人很受招聘人员的欢迎,因为他们擅长团队合作,有很强的领导能力。
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  • 单词commission 联想记忆:

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 美国国家篮球协会(NBA)近日宣布,NBA全球赛将在中国举办两场金州勇士队对明尼苏达森林狼队的季前赛。
  • 明年一二线城市房价将继续下滑 下半年复苏
  • 毫不奇怪,信贷具有“助周期性”。当资产价格一片繁荣时,乐观的贷款机构倾向于发放更多贷款,进而加剧市场的狂欢。当资产价格下跌时,贷款机构会控制风险,有时这种做法会加速下跌。

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 美国“封杀”中资收购飞利浦照明业务 勤上光电“中枪”
  • Household substance abuse
  • 众多家居企业业绩亮眼 预计下半年家具市场向好
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

鹤岗安置房万元一套 是个案还是普遍现象?

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 北漂毕婚族买房故事:为凑首付卖了县城两套房
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 杭州购房者摇号热情降温:置业顾问重新电话邀约客户
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

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Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

布兰妮,你在《放荡女性》节目中吧唧着嘴嚼口香糖的样子快把我逼疯了,那样子就和你在1998年被审问时一个模样。
Bottoms Up is the revolutionary new way to serve beer. The Bottoms Up system saves time, eliminates waste and awes customers!
All or most of the municipal government's departments will move, as the office buildings are scheduled to be completed that year.
It is the first biography to win the prize, although Mr Greenspan’s autobiography, The Age of Turbulence, was shortlisted in 2007, the year before the financial crisis raised serious questions about the central banker’s legacy.
As well as diversity, Mr Cook has championed sustainability and supply-chain transparency, including a commitment to reducing Apple’s use of conflict minerals. While hyper-efficient under Mr Cook’s management before he became chief executive, Apple’s supply chain has not always been something to boast about, with recurring complaints about working conditions.
The Thai capital has bounced to the top of an annual list of the world's most popular travel destinations after spending several years in the wilderness (of second place).
Separate temperature measurements taken from satellites do not show 2014 as a record year, although it is close. Several scientists said the satellite readings reflected temperatures in the atmosphere, not at the earth’s surface, so it was not surprising that they would differ slightly from the ground and ocean-surface measurements that showed record warmth.
单词virtue 联想记忆:
“也许,小组会多你一个少你一个问题不大,但是,你的不称职就意味着67万人的缺席,你的失语就意味着67万人沉默。”
瑞士、瑞典、英国再次占据榜单前三名。全球创新指数25强经济体中,有15个来自欧洲。

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

开“黑”民宿且偷录房客隐私 两男子被三亚警方拘留

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • The next big attempt at a global climate agreement will come when negotiators from around the world gather in Paris in December. Political activists on climate change wasted no time Friday in citing the 2014 heat record as proof that strong action was needed.
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • Those quickly sold out, locking out the vast majority of fans in soccer-mad Brazil.
  • 广州闲置宅基地可拆旧建新 建设民宿发展乡村旅游
  • 但同比而言,厦门涨幅为43.9%,排在第二位,仅落后于安徽省会合肥,后者为47.6%。65个城市同比上涨,5个城市同比下跌,这表明虽然房价可能不会像以前一样迅速攀升,但上涨仍然具有普遍性而且较有韧性。
  • 板材环保风暴来袭 新型涂料或将取代油漆
  • To start with, a year before the first iPhone was released, LG had introduced a full touchscreen phone. Even that was not the first, though. The world's first touchscreen phone was IBM's Simon, which was released in 1992. And touchscreen technology even predates the Simon. The first touchscreen device was a tablet made by E.A. Johnson in 1965 that was used by air traffic controllers until 1995. Bent Stumpe and Frank Beck made the first capacitive touchscreen in the early '70s. Unlike Johnson's tablet, it could not be pressed with the fingers. Instead, it required a stylus. In 1971, Samuel Hurst developed the first resistive touchscreen, which he called the "elograph." It responded to the fingers as well as a stylus. In 1985, HP invented the world's first touchscreen computer, called the HP-150. In 1993, Apple also released its first touchscreen device—the Newton Personal Digital Assistant. The product was a flop, recording low sales.

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 处理废弃家具将收费?
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 玛戈特·瓦尔斯特伦在20多岁时结束了一段充满暴力的感情。作为外交部长,她正在一个传统上属于男性的领域里挑战各种假定。
  • 胡润在接受路透社采访时表示:“这是一种新型的财富创造方式。”他还表示,中国经济正在缓慢下行,中国必须适应这种方式。

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

中国楼市迎深刻变化:二手房开始主导一二线楼市

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