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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

荷兰首相马克?吕特(Mark Rutte)最近由于对安卡拉立场强硬而在民调中排名上升。吕特所属的自由民主人民党(VVD)在民调中略微领先自由党。周二,他将埃尔多安的言论称为“对历史令人恶心的歪曲”,还称“我们不会自甘堕落至这种水平。这完全不可接受”。

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n. 剥夺,免职,匮乏,丧失,夺去
The experts warn that adding a number or symbol to a common word is also an ineffective trick.‘Hackers know your tricks, and merely tweaking an easily guessable password does not make it secure,’ said Slain.
Tongzhou was designated as the site of a new administrative center for the municipal government to help relieve the current heavy pressure on public services in downtown Beijing, where the central government is located.

An evaluation report on the "Double Eleven" (singles' day) shopping spree has been released in Beijing, offering insights into China's largest annual online shopping event.
You might think Hawaiian has it relatively easy, since its flights rarely have to contend with the kind of challenging weather conditions found on the mainland. Hawaiian perennially rates high in on-time performance rankings, topping the most recent DOT list i n September. It recently announced it will branch well beyond its island home with non-stop service to Beijing.
"Everywhere I go business owners are seeing an increase in demand," said Gus Faucher, senior economist at PNC Financial Services. "Businesses will have to raise wages to attract or maintain workers."

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

厦门楼市观望情绪浓 融信、保利、三盛等房企降价卖房

Estimates for the size of the industry vary but Goldman Sachs figures suggest that sector loans grew from Rmb6bn to Rmb83bn between 2012 and 2014.
The US has overtaken India as the leading user of anti-dumping and other trade defence cases, with China and its steel sector the biggest target, according to research.
v. 强调,着重

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

在过去的一年中,20多个省推出鼓励学生创业的政策,在创业期间,允许学生休学2至8年,并保留其学籍。然而,很多行业内部坚持学生应该首先完成学业,并先工作几年。
自1983年以来,每年的央视春晚就成为了中国人民春节必不可少的重要组成部分,也难怪主办方的每个举动都能成为关注的焦点。
时间:2009-10-22 编辑:vicki

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 201103/129769.shtmlEveryone tells a white lie on occasion, it’s just a question of why. Some white lies save relationships, some ease a hectic situation, and others buy us time. We all do it, so there is no reason to deny it. As long as we aren’t hurting others or breaking the law, these innocent lies can make life more pleasant. Most of these white lies only stretch aninterpretation of what the truth actually is anyways. Here’s a list of the 10most common white lies and why we tell them.
  • 出租房曝甲醛超标 自如:全力解决问题
  • The hair creates a resemblance to the look of Michelle Pfeiffer, but Ms. Chastain gives it more of an edge. Kay Georgiou, who frequently styles the hair of Matt Damon and Gwyneth Paltrow for films, oversaw the look.
  • 北京积分落户明日启动 规模仍为6000人
  • 股市震荡传导楼市 “土豪”炒股亏钱申请缓交房款
  • 这种成功的感觉本身也可以带来一种身份认同。
    印度国家板球队

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 发债高峰再现 11月房企融资已超千亿, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

长租公寓整改 安全永远是企业价值排序的首位

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

深圳:经济适用房满足条件可取得完全产权

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 根据弗雷斯特研究公司(Forrester Research)的预测,今年美国网络商店的销售额将达到2,940亿美元,约为全国零售总额的9%。据弗雷斯特预计,到2018年,电子商务将占到全美零售总额的11%,约4,140亿美元,其中通过平板电脑和智能手机进行的交易约占线上销售额的20%。
    In response, Mr Wilders labelled Mr Rutte a liar, citing the prime minister’s broken pledge not to support a bailout of Greece during the 2012 election.
  • 今年临近尾声之际,欧洲央行在12月3日投票削减其存款利率至负0.3%,并扩大资产购买,使量化宽松计划的规模达到1.46万亿欧元。此举出炉十几天后,美联储(Federal Reserve)自2006年以来首次提高利率,突显大西洋两岸正在推行的货币政策截然不同。
    4.《欲望都市》掀起纸杯蛋糕热
    影片由斯蒂芬?斯皮尔伯格执导,梅丽尔?斯特里普和汤姆?汉克斯主演,讲述了一次激动人心的合作。凯瑟琳?格雷厄姆(斯特里普饰)是美国第一位大型报刊女性出版商,故事里,她与编辑本?布拉德利(汉克斯)力争抢先于《纽约时报》大规模报道美国政府的秘密。这些秘密尘封了三年,涉及四位总统。他们把自己的事业前途——以及人身自由——都赌在了这一次冒险上,双方必须合作,解决彼此之间的不和,才能携手将真相披露在大众面前。
    除了这一综合排行榜,《美国新闻与世界报道》还提供了地区、国家、特定专业大学排行榜,方便大家进行更为细致的搜索。
    而其他的队伍还有在尝试赢球的。小牛队,在3-13的战绩面前,骄傲地说他们不会垫底。但是,明年被认为是近年来最好的NBA选秀,有Markelle Fultz, Jayson Tatum, Lonzo Ball, Josh Jackson, Harry Gile, OG Anumoby, Ivan Rabb……等等优质球员。

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 一线楼市国庆节成交量同比上涨 难掩整体低迷走势
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • “便利店+”时代正在来临

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

CareerCast.com, a career website owned by Adicio Inc., ranked 200 jobs from best to worst based on five criteria: physical demands, work environment, income, stress, and hiring outlook. The firm used data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics and other government agencies to determine the rankings. As in prior years, the 200 jobs were selected for their relevance in the current labor market as well as the availability of reliable data.
comfort
6. The parties are epic – if you have the time
adj. 突出的,显著的,未支付的
智联招聘最近的一份调查报告显示,在参与调查的2016届应届毕业生中,毕业后选择创业的比例为仅仅只有3.1%,而2015年的比例是6.3%。
来自中国首都北京的北京大学和清华大学,分列2017年亚洲大学排行榜的第二、三名。而新加坡国立大学则位居榜首。
Gunmen kidnapped 18 Turkish workers Wednesday in Iraq's capital.

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 约60%的学员尚未参加工作,另有30%的学员拥有不到两年的工作经验。
  • 洞庭湖中“私人湖”难拆 真正的利益纠葛是什么
  • Philippa Langley, a member of the Richard III Society who coordinated and helped fund the search, said she hoped a new image would emerge of the king and "the two-dimensional character devised by the Tudors will be no more".
    But what drives the underlying optimism or pessimism? Koudijs, working with Hans-Joachim Voth at the UniversitatPompeuFabra in Barcelona, found surprising answers.
  • 智能家居症结待解 何时才能步入百姓家?
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 节目35 歌曲《美丽中国》,沙宝亮 徐千雅
    依然年轻
  • Her mother discovered the debits on Jan 30, China Central Television reported.
    与此同时,中国12月消费者物价指数(CPI)略升至1.5%,11月为1.4%,为5年低点。
  • How do you feel about workingwith Ei Aoki again in Aldnoah?
    库尼斯在去年的榜单上排名第九。
  • 时间:2011-06-02 编辑:beck
    There were also shows that didn’t live up to early expectations but still had traction, most notably “The Affair,” on Showtime, which began as a Hamptons film noir and instead turned into a French art film. The crime may not be commensurate with the series’s punishingly slow pace and “Rashomon"-like storytelling, but the series picked up momentum — and suspense — in the final episodes.
    Industrial production expanded 1.4 per cent month-on-month in October, the quickest pace since a 4.1 per cent rise in January. It was better than the 1.1 per cent gain in September, but still fell short of economists' expectations for a gain of 1.8 per cent.
  • 我们在中高速行进当中也会系紧安全带,不会让风险“急性发作”,更不会发生区域性或者系统性的风险。
    Emissions have been falling gradually in recent years in most of the developed countries, in part because of economic weakness but also because of strengthening climate policies. Emissions in the 28-nation European Union fell 1.8 percent in 2013, despite increases in coal consumption in a few countries, including Germany and Poland. Emissions decreased sharply in Britain, Italy and Spain.
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 深圳首套房贷利率优惠幅度或扩大到9折 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

淄博12家家具市场诚信发声 抵制不正当竞争等违法行为

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

广州公租房准入放宽: 家庭年人均收入35660元

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

雷士照明收购中和投资75%股权

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

年末房企忙融资 “借新还旧”应对偿债高峰

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • We first see the hair of Anna Morales (Jessica Chastain) during the opening credits of “A Most Violent Year.” She’s at her makeup mirror.
  • 查斯特·班宁顿
  • 一线城市房价上涨17.2% 春节前冬歇期酝酿新地王

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 单词medal 联想记忆:
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • The TV drama is not based on a novel but the story of a real businesswoman Zhou Ying. Born in the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), Zhou was the richest female entrepreneur in Shaanxi province at that time.
    单词stable 联想记忆:
    Of the graduates to have been through the scheme, 42 per cent have not persisted with teaching. But Teach First says even those who have left the profession remain loyal to the programme’s values.
  • The host list of 2014 Spring Festival Gala, including Zhu Jun, Dong Qing, Bi Fujian, Li Sisi and Zhang Guoli, are released on Wednesday. Chinese film actor and director Zhang Guoli will host the annual gala of China Central Television (CCTV) for the first time.

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 根据中国海关的数据,今年头十个月,中国对美国出口同比增长5.2%,对东盟(Asean)国家出口同比增长3.7%。
  • 史上最严限产:10月起水泥、钢铁、建材全停产!
  • 中国拒绝承认存在任何不当行为,并表示正在努力解决工业产能过剩的问题。随着中国经济增长放缓,该问题变得日益尖锐。

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 百万房补千万巨奖 珠三角湾区城市全球揽才
  • Household substance abuse
  • 毕业季深圳房租逆市下跌 城中村模式供应低价房
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

东莞:住房公积金新政满月 公积金贷款买房着数多

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 家具卖场打造自有品牌 比徒有虚名更实在
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • “碎尸案别墅”拍出后 拖欠的物业费谁付?
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

Musk said he expects to be producing cars at a 100,000-a-year rate by the end of 2015.

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

Lawrence’s 2016 earnings dropped 11.5 percent from her 2015 total of $52 million. Forbes will release its list of the world’s highest-paid actors on Thursday. Last year Robert Downey Jr. topped the list with an estimated $80 million.
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4. Rihanna
The report provided in-depth observations on 28 Chinese business and administrative capitals - excluding Beijing and Shanghai - using several indicators.
For example, taxi drivers who take a detour or refuse passengers can also be fined a maximum of 2,000 yuan.
While falling prices for oil and other inputs have supported profit margins, the positive impact has been outweighed by falling prices for finished goods, He Ping, a statistician at the bureau’s industrial department, said in a statement accompanying the data.
This is the sixth edition of the QS World University Rankings by Subject, featuring a record-breaking 42 disciplines, making it the largest-ever ranking of the kind. The expert opinion of the world's top 76,798 academics and 44,426 employers informed the results, alongside the analysis of 28.5 million research papers and over 113 million citations sourced from the Scopus/Elsevier bibliometric database, said QS.
Attention, travel lovers. You may not have made any travel plans yet, but the choices for next year’s best destinations are already out. Recently, the well-known travel guide publisher Lonely Planet issued its Best in Travel 2014 selection. Here, we pick a few countries from its top 10 list to give you a taste.
“He’s informal, candid and approachable,” says Ginni Rometty, chief executive of IBM, who praises him as “very authentic. It’s the hallmark of a modern CEO. What you see is what you get.”
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Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

佛山顺德区“互联网+”倒逼企业自查自纠

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • Chinese Premier Li Keqiang said the economy performed better than forecast in 2017 and expects annual gross domestic product growth of around 6.9 per cent, according to state media.
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • encourage
  • 大家居行业整合并购加剧 中型规模企业咋活
  • 2. 在原来工作岗位上呆太久了
  • 房宝宝降房价最少三成 冯仑给地产众筹敲边鼓
  • In 2011, some seven years after the last season of Friends, over 36 million tuned into Comedy Central, a US satellite TV channel, to watch the show. The main demographic for this channel is 16 to 34 year olds, and viewing figures spiked during holidays, when extra episodes are also shown.

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 家居市场将提前进入“放假”状态
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 一名11岁的女学生因发明了一个快速、廉价测试铅污染水的方法,而被誉为“美国顶尖青年科学家”。
  • It seems that Christmas time is here once again, and it is time again to bring in the New Year. We wish the merriest of Christmas to you and your loved ones, and we wish you happiness and prosperity in the year ahead.又该迎接新的一年了。我们向你及你的亲人们致以最美好的祝福,愿你在新的一年里事业兴旺,幸福美满!

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

网拍“物优价廉” 地产商越来越时兴网上淘地

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