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7月房价涨幅再收窄:一线城市降温 二线城市发力

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 长沙:足不出户便可办理楼盘认购 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

二手房交易可能出现这些漏洞 要怎么”堵”?

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

8. Sturgill Simpson “Metamodern Sounds in Country Music” (High Top Mountain) A throwback progressive hunkered down with a whip-smart band: country music has seen this before. But on his breakthrough second album, Sturgill Simpson made it a pliable trademark, grounded at every turn by his winning, seen-it-all baritone.
中国国产3D奇幻/冒险片《捉妖记》2015年7月在国内上映后打破一系列票房纪录,成为2015年中国内地最卖座的电影
完成家庭作业,阅读指定的内容,以及其他的事。在网络上查找关于你的学习主题的内容,在图书馆看看书,再看看还可以学到哪些关于主题的内容。
Morocco is home to nine UNESCO World Heritage Sites, mainly ancient towns and old city ruins, making it a decent choice for history lovers.
节目39 歌曲《冬天里的一把火》,吴克群 《梦想合唱团》宁波队
他说,“油价将波动上行。”
此类知名大家还包括美国大热导演大卫·林奇以及台湾鬼才电影制片人张艾嘉,他们的作品也在推荐放映列表里。

但是,当今年12月WTO成员国聚集在布宜诺斯艾利斯召开两年一度的部长级会议时,我们将一尝世界新秩序的味道。一如既往的是,目前尚不清楚WTO此次能否产生一些实质性内容。但真正的考验在于,WTO有史以来第一次不由美国牵头讨论。中国或欧盟会取而代之吗?印度会像过去一样一心阻挠任何协议吗?
foundation
报告指出,浙江省的杭州市以及广东省的深圳市通过车辆限制及更好的道路连接等方式,在提升交通状况上取得了最大的进步。
安迪?穆雷在美国男子网球公开赛中取得的胜利和奥运夺冠使他成为搜索次数最多的英国奥运会选手。
Flying during the holidays takes special strategies, which we’ve outlined here. It also means being prepared for significant weather delays, especially in the Northeast and Midwest.

Footnotes

  • “东南飞”二次上演 四成家具厂迁移东南亚
  • The average price for new residential housing rose 12.6 per cent in November year on year, according to a weighted average from Reuters based on data for 70 major cities published by the National Bureau of Statistics. That is up just 0.3 percentage points from October, whereas previous months had frequently seen jumps of 1 or 2 percentage points at a time.

房地产经纪公司莱坊(Knight Frank)的数据显示,今年第一季度,香港豪宅租金同比下跌5.2%,跌幅超过内罗毕以外的任何其他城市。就在去年9月价格下跌之后,运动品牌阿迪达斯(Adidas)在香港租入了一间1.3万平方英尺的店铺,租金相比上一个租户、配饰品牌蔻驰(Coach)低了22%。
The inclusion of three turbodiesel engines this year could be considered controversial, especially as diesels remain far less popular in the U.S. than in Europe, where they tend to dominate the discussion. This is the first year in which more than two diesel-powered mills made the top 10 list and ironically two of them come from domestic automakers, including the only current full-size domestic half-ton pickup to offer one, the Ram 1500.
"China is really in a tough position," Dr. Peters said. "Emissions have grown so much in the last 10 years or so that no matter how you look at China, it has an immense task."
The Southwestern African country owns over 20 national parks and has the world's oldest deserts.
3.卡夫品牌喜爱度:-10%/排名:11
Darkest Hour

暂停企业购房,限购政策打上公平“补丁”

References

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