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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

单词deprivation 联想记忆:

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When did winter become the season of television’s most distinguished content? The fall season, with its organized and heavily publicized broadcast-network premieres, still gets the attention, but a greater number of interesting shows now arrive on cable, broadcast and online in the first quarter of the year.
我们每个人都会说些善意的谎言,这毫无疑问,问题在于为什么我们要这么做。有些善意的谎言可以挽救我们的关系,有些可以缓解忙碌的处境,还有些可以为我们赢得时间。我们每个人都在说善意的谎言,我们没有理由去否定这个事实。只要不会伤害到其他人,不会触犯法律,这些善意的谎言是会让我们的生活更美好的。大多数善意的谎言都是我们对于真相的另一种延伸的阐释。
adj. 社会的,社交的

你倾向于隐藏自己的感情吗?
ownership
《the Post》

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

卖场促销影响市场份额分配 不利健康发展

The largest flawless vivid blue diamond in the world is to go on sale today at Christie's auction house.
在参加《007:大破天幕杀机》巡回宣传的同时,玛尔洛也会拍摄由马立克执导的新电影。
Neshama Spielman, from Jerusalem, found the artifact four years ago at a dig organized by the City of David and the Temple Mount Sifting Project, which works to examine tons of dirt removed without archaeological supervision from the Temple Mount by the Muslim Waqf. Details of the find and its identification, however, have only now been revealed. Spielman, who is aged 12, was just 8 when she made the find.

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

Children show “Paper-cutting Flowers” (China Southern Dance School under the China Dancers Association)
噢,卡梅隆,真希望你还有高中时的风采,因为那时的你是史诗般的存在。
这个belty运用现代科技追踪健康状况,水的摄入量,和动作,但你要花395美元,可能更值得买一个时尚的智能手表或运动手环。

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • We will deepen rural reform.
  • 说好的不泄露呢?中介可从安居客后台获得用户个人隐私
  • Plastic surgery has long been big business in the US, but now the trend is sweeping across Asia.
  • 中国LED产业迎来新风口 缺“芯”仍为最大阻碍
  • 红星美凯龙将发布家居流通业首份CSR报告
  • The auction house said today that the auction, featuring two diamonds over 100 carats, drew buyers from more than 30 countries.
    adj. 相同的,同一的

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 南通海安发展家具全产业链 欲在华东叫响品牌, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

广州实施“租购并举” 已批准三家住房租赁企业

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

冷清 1月全国建材行业规模以上卖场销售482.6亿

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • A retrospective section will include movies produced by the Shanghai studio Wenhua, a company founded in 1946 that ushered a new era of Chinese art-house films, Zhang said, giving viewers "a glimpse of Chinese cinematic culture and history".
    "The guy must have weighted the pros and cons of the situation: he had a great chance to survive a stranded elevator, but would have been doomed if he left homework undone," joked @Zealshifang.
  • Hello, I'm Severn Suzuki speaking for E.C.O. - The Environmental Children's Organisation. 大家好,我是Severn Suzuki,我代表儿童环境组织来此演讲。
    Certainly, the emails have already started flooding in celebrating various products in shades of Rose Quartz and Serenity. But I wonder: Are we suddenly going to see a host of blended pastel ties, as opposed to the currently popular red and blue, popping up in the next round of presidential debates? Place your bets now.
    制造业表现较好,利润增长6.5%。受低廉的能源价格的提振,电力、热力、燃气及水生产和供应业利润增长17%。
    平均工作经验:12个月
    “有个人说自己去上厕所,然后就再没回来。”

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 家居建材行业“反展厅现象”初现 实体店更具优势
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 广州探索“安置房银行”

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

泰晤士高等教育世界大学排名的编辑菲尔·巴蒂说,“学校的全球发展前景是一个名牌大学的重要标志之一。顶尖大学聘请来自世界各地的教师,吸引来自全球有极高天分的学生,并能与所有的一流专业合作——不管是哪个国家的。”
《二十二》讲述的是22名慰安妇的故事,是中国首部票房超过1亿元的纪录片。
位于华盛顿特区的乔治敦大学(Georgetown University)麦克多诺商学院(McDonough business school)重新回到了定制课程排行榜的第15位,去年,该校因客户调查反馈率低而未上榜。只有3所学校是首次登上定制课程排行榜,包括排名第60位的伦敦卡斯商学院(Cass Business School)。
智能冰箱
报告还发现,在当地政府的努力下,北京、深圳、广州、上海等一线城市的交通拥堵状况没有恶化。
注册人数:503人
凯特·温斯莱特(Kate Winslet)是另一位将其最佳女演员奖杯置于洗手间的英国演员。她因在2008年一部改编自本哈德·施林克(Bernhard Schlink)的小说《生死朗读》(The Reader)的同名影片中扮演一位集中营的看守而获此殊荣。

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • Folk Song “Jasmine” (Song Zuying and Celine Dion, Canada)
  • 受困融资渠道收窄 房企千方百计调降负债率
  • According to the search engine, Euro 2012 beat Olympics tickets as the top internet search of the year in the UK, the Sun reported.
    check
  • 特大城市近郊难治理“三大不对等”为症结所在
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • In truth, slower growth of about 8 per cent could be better for China and for the world. More environmentally sustainable and equitable outcomes would ease popular concerns and higher consumption would ease tensions over global trade.
    Cambridge Judge Business School also ends the year on a high, appearing for the first time in the rankings for both open and custom executive education, and climbing three places in the MBA ranking and 12 places in the Executive MBA table.
  • 项目总成本:17.66万美元
    在20世纪90年代,罗斯把它应用到如何把美国医学生分配到医院。他开发了一种新的算法被全国驻地医师匹配程序所采用,这有助于把驻院医师分配到合适的医院。
  • predecessor
    首先,正如咨询与培训机构RedPrairie公司的供应链专家汤姆?科赞斯基所言,一提到物流行业,多数人都觉得它“没有吸引力”,是一项乏味且薪水不高的仓储工作。
  • 向美国男女退伍军人表示敬意的退伍军人节可以追溯到1919年。当时的总统威尔逊宣布11月11日为停战日,庆祝一年前第一次世界大战结束。第一次世界大战交战国一方是德国,另一方是英国、法国和美国。威尔逊将第一次世界大战称作“结束一切战争的战争”。当时的停战在11月11日11时生效。
    此外,该专家补充说道,受当前经济形势的影响,并且我国金融市场资源重新配置,银行业高速增长的周期已经过去。
    ['breik.θru:]
  • *Guest Actress in a Drama Series: Margo Martindale, “The Americans”
    16. 最受忽视的真相。“这个行业内有一个神话,就是年轻男性主导着票房,”11月,索尼电影娱乐公司电影组主席汤姆·罗斯曼(Tom Rothman)在接受《好莱坞报道者》(Hollywood Reporter)采访时说。在同一次采访中,沃尔特·迪士尼公司的主席艾伦·F·霍恩(Alan F. Horn)试图把问题简化,“演员薪酬受很多变量影响。比如说,安吉丽娜·朱莉出演《沉睡魔咒》(Maleficent)的片酬就比黛西·雷德利(Daisy Ridley)出演《星球大战》(Star Wars)高,但她们都是女性。”(哦,多谢了艾伦!)
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 业内预测2019年楼市调控政策难松动 房企销售压力继续加大 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

房贷申请量有所增加 天量信贷造楼市疯牛行情?

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

新一线城市吸纳能力全面超越一线城市

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

南京二手房上周成交量环比上涨9.16%

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

涂料需求季节性疲软 钛白粉价格维持下降趋势

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • "Machines will be stronger and smarter than human beings, but they will never be wiser," he said, "because one thing's for sure: Wisdom, soul and heart are things that only human beings possess, and machines can never enjoy failure, success, friendship or love."
  • 2011年,在《老友记》最后一季播出7年之后,美国卫星电视频道Comedy Central再次播放该剧,观看人数超过了3600万,而观众的年龄主要分布在16岁至34岁之间。假期时,看剧人数更是由于播放集数增加而飙升。
  • 4月份房地产信托发行数量占比50% 创年内最高

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • It even featured in the March 19, 1870, issue of Scientific American magazine. Made by Thomas Luders from Olney, Illinois, and called a "pedespeed," the wheels then were much smaller, measuring around 36 centimeters (15 in) in diameter. Luders also said the skates could be used by anybody, irrespective of their physique. He himself was a large, heavy man, and he claimed he could use them for two straight hours without getting tired. Another version of wheel skates, appearing in 1923, had its tires on the inside of the foot rather than outside. (Other than the size of the wheels, the main improvement made by Chariot Skates is the small tire at the back of the bigger tire for increased stability.)
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 周二公布的数据显示,去年12月,中国规模以上工业企业利润同比下降8%,是2011年末以来的最大降幅。11月数据的同比下滑幅度为4.2%。
    几乎没几个首席执行官的决策能像雅虎首席执行官玛丽莎梅耶尔禁止员工在家上班的决定那样引起了这么大的关注。这项政策出台后,人们最初的反应是它存在很大争议,而且让许多人感到不安,原因是人们认为这样的措施缺乏灵活性。
    Employment is crucial to ensuring people’s well-being. We will focus our efforts on facilitating employment to see that through their hard work, people can create wealth and realize their full potential.
  • Sinta Nuriyah

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • In August, the holdings were to the tune of $80.4 billion while it stood at $79.7 billion in July.
  • 《中国商业地产行业年度报告》发布 消费分级趋势突显 商业资产价值分化
  • 3. Flying Horse

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 八成热点城市房价环比下调 三亚重庆涨幅居首
  • Household substance abuse
  • 建材行业:国企改革风口再至
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

行业竞争加剧 家居企业如何培养麾下大军迎战?

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 广州东莞房价涨幅同比降12个百分点
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 深圳某开发商内部文件曝光 房价暴涨竟是人为?
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

因特尔:新员工红地毯

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

从几乎所有单项指标看,巴黎高等商学院都没有排在首位,但它整体表现强劲。该学院学生毕业3年后的年薪为9.3万美元,位居第五;性价比以及毕业生国际流动性位居第三。该学院还在目标实现率方面并列第一(93%)。
Blue skies will not be, and should not be, a luxury.
美与进化
Age: 45
2017年,衡量工业品出厂价格、反映经济活力的主要指标--生产者物价指数(PPI)上涨6.3%,结束了自2012年以来的连续下降态势。2016年PPI下降1.4%。
“有些诡异的是,这跟马克o贝尼奥夫创立Salesforce.com时的情形非常相似,这点地方根本不够从事客户关系管理(CRM)使用,”米奇o哈珀表示。他与联席CEO艾迪o马查拉尼在2009年创立了这家公司。
'So it's how do you square that circle? How do you remain true to the original creation and concept and yet at the same time not offend people in the 21st century?
9.Bellarine Peninsula, Australia
Local educational authorities have since revoked Zhengzhou Boqiang New Idea Life Training School's license and launched an investigation into its record. Hauntingly, the school's website remains online, replete with photos of students in camouflage uniforms performing drills and attending what the site labels "wonderful lectures."
然而,主要榜单上的排名大幅上升不会自动转化为欧洲商学院排名的上升。例如,牛津大学(University of Oxford)萨伊德商学院(SaBusiness School)在MBA榜单上的排名上升1位,在开放招生EMBA课程的排名上升5位,在EMBA榜单上的排名上升12名,首次进入该榜单前十名,但其在欧洲商学院榜单上的排名没有变化,依然是第10名。

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

买房者质疑25万中介费与服务质量不对等 中介:出于同情赔偿一两万

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • The American share in the total drugspending is about one third. IMS experts estimate that in 2014 it will rise11.7 percent. The UShas particularly high prices, according to the report, but drug makers defendthis by citing the soaring cost of new medicine development.
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • Henda Ayari
  • 宁波5家房产公司骚扰120被处理
  • 然而,时间较长似乎并不代表学业较轻松。要保持学习劲头,合理的时间管理至关重要。英国华威商学院的一名毕业生谈到:“几个必修项目会帮助你跟上进度并避免在最后阶段非常紧张。”总的来说,2012级毕业生花了两年半多一点的时间完成学业。
  • “房地产去库存”攻坚战如火如荼 对LED行业影响几何?
  • 6.杰克·谢帕德差点在第一集中死去

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 一线房价上涨动能不足 政策刺激效果恐不超仨月
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • core
  • 岁末来临,二十多部影片轮番上映(hit cinema)。而今年的贺岁片大战随着《龙门飞甲》和《金陵十三钗》的上映而硝烟四起,一场票房PK战也随之拉开帷幕!December is a golde

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

房地产实现“V形反转” 7月房价起跑车位均价起飞

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