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国土部严查房企囤地 近二成不能正常履约

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 中天金融开启金融扶贫 成立集体平台助力乡村致富 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

苏州开展监督抽查 网购25批次内墙涂料100%合格

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

It was visible, for example, on many of Frida Giannini’s Gucci runways, including the tablecloth shades and A-line shapes of leathers for autumn-winter 2014; the pastel tunics and ruffled hostess dresses of spring-summer 2013; the bright Beatle trouser suits and caftans of spring-summer 2009.
这个系列的特制镜框和太阳墨镜以“DVF|为谷歌眼镜设计”为标签,价格高达1,600美元以上。迄今为止,谷歌已经和雷朋(Ray-Ban)眼镜的生产商陆逊梯卡(Luxottica)以及其他几家提供时尚眼镜的公司如普拉达(Prada)等展开过合作。它还招募了曾在艺术网站Art.com担任首席市场官的时尚总监艾维o罗斯来领导谷歌眼镜团队。
支持:奥德曼塑造的战时领袖丘吉尔收获一致好评,而这对他似乎是手到擒来的。
考克斯说:“人们的政治倾向甚至影响到他们对气候的认知,这真有趣。”
《无为大师》
The Female Warlord Who Had C.I.A. Connections and Opium Routes
n. 块,大量,众多

The other finalists, each of which will receive 10,000, were: Losing the Signal , by Jacque McNish and Sean Silcoff, who look at how BlackBerry went off course; Digital Gold , Nathaniel Popper’s examination of the rise of bitcoin, the virtual currency; How Music Got Free , Stephen Witt’s history of the way piracy and peer-to-peer sharing have disrupted the recorded music industry; Anne-Marie Slaughter’s new book Unfinished Business , about the challenge of achieving gender balance; and Misbehaving , in which Richard Thaler traces the development of behavioural economics.
But some people might just remember the mustaches.
2016年,9个省级地区的GDP超过3万亿元,比上一年增加3个;25个省级地区的GDP突破1万亿元,与上一年持平。
这个报告没有谈到可能影响患病数量的原因,但是很多人,包括在野党的成员,归咎于政府一味缩减医疗健康成本预算。
还有些电视剧不如人们最初预料的好,不过仍有吸引力,最显眼的是映时频道的《婚外恋》,它一开始看起来像汉普顿斯式黑色电影,后来变成了法国艺术电影。剧中的罪行与过于缓慢的节奏以及《罗生门》(Rashomon)式的讲述方式不太相称,不过该剧在最后几集势头大涨,悬念丛生。

Footnotes

  • 沪指获利面收窄 大量股市获利资金涌入楼市
  • 是什么让菲尔普斯这么开心?

反对:尽管该片被洛杉矶影评人协会评为最佳剪辑奖,但却没有受到纽约影评人的重视。它的势头会逐渐减弱吗?
INDOORS: The two-story house, of brick and stucco with a ceramic tile roof, was designed by Dorr & Dorr, completed in 1916 and renovated over the last 15 years. The style is part Prairie, part Arts and Crafts, employing clean lines, open space, elegant woodwork and colored glass. Renovations were done by Joseph Metzler of Sala Architects in Minneapolis.
加强现代农业建设。
小编碎碎念:华裔球员林书豪的一夜爆红,让因病缺阵的尼克斯当家球星小甜瓜安东尼颇有几分“躺着也中枪”的无辜感。
'She enjoys it and we don't force her to do anything she doesn't want to do.'
5.3-D 打印耳朵

50家房企平均盈利能力连续两年上升

References

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