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互联网家装行业问题仍在 “三化”或成破解利剑

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 涂料行业产能过剩,招商工作重心需转移 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

2020年全球结构胶粘剂市值将超240亿美元

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

The fear was over downward mobility and cultural changes; the anger was against immigrants and indifferent elites.
每个伟大的侦探都需要专属于自己的经典故事。对于福尔摩斯而言,这个故事是《巴斯克维尔的猎犬》。对于阿加莎?克里斯蒂笔下龟毛的比利时侦探赫克尔?波洛而言,这个故事是《东方快车谋杀案》——故事讲述了一个嗜血的恶棍在驶向巴尔干半岛的列车上杀死了一个有钱的商人。真相果真是如此吗?西德尼?吕美特曾在1974年将该故事拍成了一部备受喜爱的电影,强大的演员阵容包括肖恩?康纳利、英格丽?褒曼和阿尔伯特?芬尼(饰演侦探波洛)。如今肯尼思?布拉纳自己戴上了侦探波洛的大胡子,披挂上阵,同时又担当幕后导演。这部新版电影的演员有约翰尼?德普、黛西?雷德利、米歇尔?菲佛、佩内洛佩?克鲁斯和朱迪?丹奇。这个故事还能挖掘出什么新内容呢?也许会有。不过,即使没有,阿婆的粉丝也肯定会去看。这部电影将于11月3日在英国上映,11月10日在美国、中国和土耳其上映,11月30日在中国香港和新加坡上映。(资料来源:二十世纪福克斯电影公司)
While the FT online and full-time MBAs are not strictly comparable because the criteria used to judge them are slightly different, it is interesting to note that IE and Warwick Business School are among six schools to feature in both rankings.
Usually things that go in the trash are of no value and don't need any kind of inspection, but QUBE wants to change that with "the world's first smart trash can." The QUBE claims to help you monitor your trash and help you recycle by using innovative technology.
Experts offer advice for surviving -- and thriving -- in the next year:
Comic skit “You’ve Got Trouble”(Sun Tao, Qin Hailu etc)
【编辑语】应聘时必须面对HR,工作期间可能需要HR,离职时还是离不开HR。HR是公司中最深谙职场秘密的部门。以下的18条评论是来自于美国各知名公司的HR或是专业人力资源机构的讲师,其中包括知名作家,前人力资源经理Cynthia Shapiro(《企业机密:50条公司不会告诉你的秘密》一书的作者)。我们一起来了解下吧。

Gary Oldman on blistering form as Winston Churchill.
即使从未见过人微笑,盲人也会微笑。
《水形物语》
Good luck and great success in the coming New Year.
2015年首个周末,全球第二大比特币交易所——位于斯洛文尼亚的Bitstamp遭到黑客袭击,丢失了价值约500万美元的比特币。科技媒体很快指出,此事令数字货币比特币2015年开局不利,财经新闻网站QUARTZ曾称比特币为“2014年最糟糕的投资”。纵观该数字货币2014年1月1日至2015年1月1日的表现,QUARTZ此言非虚:2014年底,比特币的价值仅为同年年初的39%。

Footnotes

  • 建材企业产品发布
  • A study published in the journal "Clinical Psychological Science" in 2012 showcased the power of self-imagination, which showed the technique could help people with impaired memories, as well as individuals with no memory problems. As with other studies of human memory, the scientists asked participants to remember a list of words related to certain personality traits. The participants were then asked to use a specific strategy to help them recall the words. For example, some participants were asked to remember one personality trait by thinking of a second word that rhymed with the trait. Other participants were asked to remember the definition of the trait while others were asked to engage in "self-referential processing" where they would think about the trait in a personal, self-reflective way.

Turkey’s ministers have been rallying Turkish expat communities across Europe to win support for Erdogan-backed constitutional changes, which will be voted on in a referendum next month.
在全球前50名女富豪中,中国大陆的女企业家占56%。
n. 声明,陈述
The official prize citation said the two were awarded for "the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design."
*Guest Actor in a Drama Series: Hank Azaria, “Ray Donovan”
'Winning the Skytrax World's Best Airport Award for the fifth consecutive year is immense encouragement to our 50,000-strong airport community at Changi Airport, every one of whom is passionate about delivering the most memorable airport experience to our passengers', said Lee Seow Hiang, CEO of Changi Airport Group, in a statement.

中央喊话去库存 “十三五”开局之年要不要买房

References

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