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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

But Mr Stevenson said “this might reflect that the US is being bolder than the EU in protecting domestic steel producers”.

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intimidating
"A total of 297 projects will be carried out in Tongzhou, such as building new subway lines and expressways, and improving ecologies," Lu Yan, director of the Beijing Municipal Commission of Development and Reform, said at a news conference on Wednesday.
尽管你会忙个不停,但是不要忘记赞美生活中不完美的地方。我在徒步攀登喜马拉雅山的十天中了解到生活也有美好的缺陷。高山峻岭的陡峭边缘,午后骤降的冰雹风暴,都给人带来种种不便,但是却为登山旅途增添了几分妙趣。我敏锐地感觉到,在我追求完美事业的过程中,我往往没有认识到,不完美的地方也是我们自身的核心特质,需要保留下来,而不是经常改变。

最佳轿车品牌:马自达
Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, 72, became Africa's first democratically elected female president in 2005. The Nobel Committee praised the Liberian leader for her efforts to secure peace, promote economic and social development and strengthen the position of women.
No, this doesn't mean you should abandon your LinkedIn profile for fear of a suspicious boss. But it does mean you should be more careful. For one, turn off your activity broadcasts so that every savvy move you make isn't announced to your entire network. Here's how: From the homepage, hover over your photo in the top right corner, and click on "Privacy & Settings." From this page, click "Turn on/off your activity broadcasts."

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

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“The individual sent an email blast to the entire staff.”
2. 大卫·维勒莱斯(David Virelles),《姆波克》(Mbókò),ECM。才华横溢的年轻钢琴手大卫·维勒莱斯继续着对非洲-古巴文化与仪式的深入研究,带着有条不紊的酷意与精神上的开放性。罗曼·迪亚兹(Román Díaz)担任打击乐手,这张迷人的组曲有着既古典又现代的深刻内涵。
In 2011, some seven years after the last season of Friends, over 36 million tuned into Comedy Central, a US satellite TV channel, to watch the show. The main demographic for this channel is 16 to 34 year olds, and viewing figures spiked during holidays, when extra episodes are also shown.

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

The government's next snapshot of the job market, due Friday, will be distorted by Sandy, which devastated the Northeast in late October, leaving many jobless. Economists say Sandy could temporarily knock anywhere from 100,000 to 150,000 off of the government's jobs tally for November, resulting in job growth of under 100,000 or even much less.[qh]
除了跳舞,玛蒂还唱歌和表演,她已经出演了电视剧《美女上错身》(Drop Dead Diva)和《奥斯汀与艾丽》(Austin & Ally)。
Hua Xu Yin is about a princess who sacrificed her life for the country but later was saved and began her own adventures with another name. It is also a TV series adaptation of an online novel of the same title written by Tang Qi. The series premiered in July 2015, staring Lin Yuan and Zheng Jiaying. However, it did not get as much attention as its rivals. According to the online critics, the lead roles and their costumes were not appealing enough in the adaptation.

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 被氦气顶起来的泡沫穿过图形模板。
  • 2014-2015中国家居软装饰流行趋势发布
  • It’s ironic that in a country as populous as China, a meme about loneliness would be so popular. This seemingly irrational line has been repeated in every possible permutation, on every possible occasion, e.g. “What big brother is reading not a book, but loneliness.”
  • 他们房贷按揭断供不再露面 法院判决拍卖还贷
  • 国家税务总局发文 明确新个税法若干征管衔接问题
  • n. 权力,权威,职权,官方,当局
    vi. 打结

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 国家医保局:2019年将继续推进跨省异地就医直接结算工作, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

中原地产:超50城市发文治理楼市乱象 房地产调控再升级

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

买房开发票竟要自垫税款 地税局:我们没办法

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 在日本博览会上,我们非常荣幸地采访到了虚渊玄,还有Nitro+社长Takaki Kosaka。让我们开始吧。
    adj. 终极的,根本
  • 这款高端机型将成为苹果产品阵容的一名新成员,加入去年发布的、升级步伐较小的iPhone 7和iPhone 7 Plus的行列。
    要想2014年像美国人所期望的那样由经济复苏贯穿整个年度,全球经济前景必须保持相对稳定的局面。
    我们从中精选了110部新剧和回归剧,又进一步缩减到下面的20部剧(内中没有包括HBO台的《真探》[True Detective],因为它被移到今年晚些时候,亦不包括《权力的游戏》[Game of Thrones]、《副总统》[Veep]和《硅谷》[Silicon Valley],其中《硅谷》将在四月播出第一集,具体日期未宣布)。从《绝命毒师》(Breaking Bad)的衍生剧到《小镇疑云》(Broadchurch)的回归,再到《火线警探》的最终季,冬天真是电视剧迷的好时光。
    Each film Wes Anderson makes seems to exist in its very own universe. And “The Grand Budapest Hotel,” set mainly in the 1930s, uses distinct elements and props to help define its world.
    卡恩称,Summly的机器学习和自然语言处理能力背后的设想和技术“均很出色”。

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 门窗企业寻求新突破 结合互联网+现新趋势
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 南京未来重点打造8个区域“地下城”

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

In 2012, Google introduced Google Glass, a computer you can wear on your face. Someone wearing the glasses can be walking down the street or doing any everyday task while simultaneously seeing an overlay of calendar appointments, messages, and subway alerts. They can make video calls and even upload live videos to the Internet while on the move, without ever needing to use their hands. Google Glass might be cool, it might be new, it might be revolutionary, but it's definitely not the first pair of wearable computer glasses.
The real Irving is named Mel Weinberg, and he and his mistress were in fact enlisted by the FBI to oust eight elected officials for taking bribes. Just like the film, Weinberg and the FBI developed an elaborate con to catch the corrupt politicians in the act. Weinberg did end up forming a friendship with one of the officials, although unlike in the film, his final immunity deal didn't protect the friend he helped implicate. Some things are just too far-fetched, even for a career criminal.
Hope you enjoy the happiness of New Year and all the trimmings.
James is proof of a trend we've seen, from Tim Duncan to Manu Ginobili to Vince Carter. Conditioning, health science and nutrition are paving the way for athletes to remain in their prime, and then serviceable, for way longer than before. James is realistically still going to be the best player on his team when he's 36, and that's straight up bonkers.
雷文斯克罗夫特认为,如果他成为一名管理顾问,他的视野可能会相对狭窄。教学工作也有助于他变得愿意承担风险——这来之不易。“如果你曾站在30名会毫不犹豫地指出你的错误的青少年面前讲课,这种体验可能会让你变得愿意去尝试。”
It is the continual shrinkage of components that have unleashed the explosion of computing power and enabled these gadgets to be accessible to people across the world.
docu[=doc教]+ment→用来教的东西→文件;证书

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 该读数略低于经济学家的预期,不过总体上并不令人吃惊。上个月当中国央行(PBoC)出人意料地采取降息措施时,部分分析师就曾表示,此举可能是一种预防性措施,新出来的经济数据很可能较为疲弱。如今,事实正如他们的预期。
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    为期三天的"中国发展高层论坛2016"近日在北京开幕。
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  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • Hurricane Harvey
    “我是一个医生。说实话,一个人的健康首先与吃、喝与空气有关,如果这三样不好,再提什么样的发展都没有用!”
  • Detectives have laid charges, but said they will not release the details of the offenses until Friday when both the 18-year-old and the youth are expected to appear in court.
    德系三巨头:由于奔驰的几款低价产品不可避免地会损害它“要么最好,要么什么都不是”(the best or nothing)的商誉,该公司也开始陷入低迷。而即将推出的新7系轿车则会进一步巩固宝马在美国富人圈中的地位。另外,起价30,795美元的奥迪A3,很可能会使奥迪的销量较2014年增长15%,新款Q7也将进一步提高奥迪的利润。
  • 你咋不上天呢?
    也许同等重要的是,稳定或者下降的油价将会缓解通货膨胀压力使美国工人的工资更具有购买力。Renaissance Macro经济学家Neil Dutta 称“这对于国内需求来说是一个明确的积极的消息,人们将会有更多可以用来消费的钱”。
  • For the students interested in comparing school options around the world, US News released the fourth edition of its annual Best Global Universities rankings.
    《美国谍梦》(The Americans):FX频道的这部电视剧以里根时代为背景,它和剧中两位伪装成美国郊区夫妻的克格勃间谍一样具有欺骗性:第二季表面上看是冷战惊悚剧,实际上是关于爱情、家庭、友谊和猜忌的情节剧。
    农业原材料,特别是所谓的软性大宗商品,例如糖、咖啡和棉花,今年的表现在最佳之列。
  • And, ‘trustno1’ proved, perhaps unsurprisingly, to be among the worst passwords as well, taking up spot number 25.
    遗憾的是,随着乌拉圭在当地时间周六(6月28日)被哥伦比亚淘汰出局,本届世界杯决赛将不再是巴西和乌拉圭之间的再次对话。如果巴西杀入7月13日的决赛,对手将可能是墨西哥、荷兰、哥斯达黎加、希腊、美国、比利时、阿根廷和瑞士中的一支(译注:1/8决赛中,墨西哥与希腊分别不敌荷兰与哥斯达黎加,憾别世界杯)。
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 金九银十季 家居制造业“普工荒”成高悬之剑 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

前7月成都房租同比增长3.9% 住房租金不具备大幅上涨条件

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

技术、商业模式革新 LED照明产业或重构格局

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

财政部记者会:深化增值税改革是今年的“主菜”

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

抢人才,名企承诺可“分房”

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • Alice Schwarzer
  • 叙利亚五年内战使国家分裂,造成20多万人死亡,数百万人流离失所。叙利亚难民就占了报告清点人数的一半,接下来难民人数最多的是同样为战争所困扰的国家阿富汗和伊拉克。
  • 住建部:房地产市场企稳回升 要巩固向好态势

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • The eighth grader's candidacy is also about overcoming age discrimination, which he sees as a barrier to equality, and he says his quest for the top state spot is no joke.
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 网队我认为倒是可以轻松舒适地摆着烂,除非是想给那些没有融入球队文化,并且明年不会在队中地球员增加身价。对,我说的就是布鲁克-洛佩兹。他存在的交易价值很诡异,但是我们假设它存在的话,我们就该充分利用他身上的价值。
    在就业和创业之间进行抉择时,中国的大学毕业生偏向于前者。
    Successful CEOs tend to follow a structured, daily schedule of rising early, exercising, having snacks on hand for fuel and socializing many evenings of the week.
  • 要不是朝鲜再次进行核试验,朝鲜半岛眼下的大新闻可能就是特朗普选在这个节骨眼上宣布计划退出韩美贸易协定了。

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 3. 《间谍之桥》(Bridge of Spies)。几年前,史蒂文·斯皮尔伯格(Steven Spielberg)进入了殿堂级导演的行列,从安德鲁·萨里斯(Andrew Sarris)所谓的“美国电影”中借鉴了最崇高的形式——这部影片中他仍然保持水准。
  • 2015年一线城市房价或涨7%:宽松信贷支撑高房价
  • 我认为这篇文章是上篇文章“成为一个足球寡妇”的完美续篇,在这篇文章里面我分享了八大规则,其中我觉得第六条最重要。

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 融资渠道持续收紧 房企加速转型谋突围
  • Household substance abuse
  • 家具业初现马太效应 行业洗牌将持续
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

国庆长假全国楼市虚旺 北京:房子太多观望多

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 非法占地建楼收租 执法咋就“无计可施”?
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 新华社:住建部约谈12城 已有6城作出回应!
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

We should stipulate at this point that neither of us have any idea how good this draft is going to be because the college season is barely underway. It sure looks nice, what with all those freshmen stacked up together in the lottery.

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

今年8月,来自托雷维耶哈的乔斯·哈维尔创建了一个AdWords账户,这是谷歌旗下的一项点击付费服务。
华盛顿暂时的“停战”能否持续?
n. 通道,频道,(消息)渠道,海峡,方法
乔斯·威登一直都很喜欢科幻小说,也是西部小说的忠实拥趸。尽管这两种小说类型风马牛不相及,但是从《天使杀手》这部书中,他找到了一种方式,可以把二者融合起来。"我当时想把新垦地的概念好好地演绎一下",他说,"人类文明是由那些被历史深深伤害了的人们推动前行的,而不是那些创造历史的伟人。"这一次,威登决定把新垦地从西部搬到了"宁静号"宇宙飞船上。
Pushing ahead with the five priority tasks through reform
['v?:tju:]
If you wake up every morning Monday through Friday and never feel excited to go to work, that is a problem. It means you aren't enjoying your job and it is diminishing your quality of life. If you wake up every day and dread going to work, it's time to consider quitting your job.
The drama was broadcast during the summer holiday, targeting young audiences who prefer fantasies and romances.
2014年在职高管100强课程排行榜冠军是由法国巴黎高等商学院(HEC Paris)、伦敦政治经济学院(LSE)和纽约大学斯特恩商学院(Stern School of Business at New York University)三家合办的Trium课程。排行榜前5位继续由洲际EMBA课程把持。
根据官方数据显示,今年前10个月中国对外非金融类投资同比下降40.9%,这反映出中国政府严格的资本管控带来持续影响。

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

长沙市税务局:二套房契税政策界定范围为全市

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 1.It wasn’t me! – Because some things just aren’t worth taking credit for。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • ['rep?twɑ:]
  • 济南多数家居卖场砍价冲量 联合促销更亲民
  • 尽管中国国内经济放缓,中国对欧洲和美国的投资却达到创纪录高位。
  • 3月百城住宅均价近九成同比下跌 16城跌幅超10%
  • It has exceeded the average level of 2.08% in the EU, while it still lags behind the 2.4% average ratio for member countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, the bureau said.

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 原云南红塔集团董事长、褚橙创始人褚时健去世
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • Charli XCX, 'Number 1 Angel'
  • Over 10- and 20-year stretches, geographic and asset class diversification have proven beneficial for returns and risk management. Unfortunately, you are not guaranteed to see the benefits of such a strategy during any 12-month period. In an era of 140-character writing and two-minute video, should we be surprised that investors have trouble judging the success of their portfolios over long periods?

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

《广州市完善促进消费体制机制实施方案(2019—2020年)》印发

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