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人民日报海外版:生娃是家事也是国事

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 消费力大大降低 家具行业进入“销库存时代” (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

国务院印发 《个人所得税专项附加扣除暂行办法》

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

据《新京报》报道,今年我国高校毕业生达765万人,创历史新高。此外,中职毕业生达435万人,应届毕业生总人数达1200万。
《固定电话》是今年唯一一部必看的家庭喜剧/剧情片。
prosperity
Explaining how he adjusted the novel, he said: 'I think the answer is that in the book I remain true to every one of Bond's things.
吉尔伯特说:“那些以单打独斗闻名的品牌都开始与意想不到的伙伴合作。如果仔细研究苹果的投资,你会发现这个特殊队伍的成员名单,看起来就像是世界上能想象到的各行各业中最优秀的人才的名人录。”
9. You've been avoiding your boss。
With an 8.5-percent increase in profits, industrial enterprises reversed the previous year's negative growth of 2.3 percent.

Elsewhere, Stockholm School of Economics was a big winner, climbing 16 places to 28, not only recording the best year-on-year progression but also recovering from a drop of 11 places last year.
Seven schools made it back into the top 100 after having missed out in the past year or two.
“老实说,我真的不担心。”科比说,“我的投篮会变好的。”
Supporting Actor in a Limited Series or Movie: Sterling K. Brown, “The People v. O. J. Simpson: American Crime Story”
n. 摘要

Footnotes

  • 敲诈勒索北京租客 三名“二房东”获刑
  • 就在一个月前,近200个国家的政府在巴黎达成了一项新的气候协议,目标是阻止全球气温比工业化前水平上升2摄氏度以上,最好限制在1.5摄氏度以内。

The "Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology" published a study in early 2016 entitled, "The drawing effect: Evidence for reliable and robust memory benefits in free recall." While the title seems a bit long and complex, the study actually demonstrated a very simple idea. Drawing words in picture form helps people make better and stronger memories. The authors of the study created simple tasks where a participant would first draw a simple word, like a common piece of fruit. Later, the authors of the study would ask the participants to recall the words they drew. Other participants in the study were given different tasks like repeating the given word aloud a certain number of times or actually writing the word down. The researchers found that participants who drew doodles of the words they needed to recall fared much better than other participants.
China's Internet celebrities are estimated to create a whopping 58 billion yuan ($8.7 billion) market in 2016, far surpassing the 44 billion yuan in box office sales generated last year, according to an industry report.
其中,由于IT/互联网/通讯/电子行业迅猛发展,吸纳了近三成的2016年应届毕业生。
n. [宗
The country's improved performance has notched the 17th place in "innovation quality", an indicator that looks at the caliber of universities, number of scientific publications and international patent filings.
Five schools from five different countries are ranked for the first time. Singapore’s Lee Kong Chian School of Business is the highest new entrant coming straight into 36th place. Canada’s Queen’s Smith School of Business registered the best progression, climbing 32 places to 67th.

北京今年将实现GDP增长6.5%左右目标

References

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